51. Which of the following statements can be associated with OSI model?

a) A structured way to discuss and easier update system components
b) One layer may duplicate lower layer functionality
c) Functionality at one layer no way requires information from another layer
d) It is an application specific network model

Answer: c
Explanation: One layer may use the information from another layer, for example timestamp value. The information is contained in the header inserted by the previous layer. The headers are added as the packet moves from higher layers to the lower layers.

50. In the OSI model, as a data packet moves from the lower to the upper layers, headers are _

a) Added
b) Removed
c) Rearranged
d) Randomized

Answer: b
Explanation: In OSI reference model, when data packet moves from lower layers to higher layer, headers get removed. Whereas when the data packet moves from higher layer to lower layers, headers are added. These headers contain the essential control information for the protocols used on the specific layer.

49. In TCP IP Model, when data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is __

a) Application layer
b) Transport layer
c) Link layer
d) Session layer

Answer: a
Explanation: In TCP/IP model, the fifth layer is application layer. When data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is application layer. Application layer provides the interface between applications and the network. The user interacts with only this layer.

47. In OSI model, when data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is _

a) Application layer
b) Transport layer
c) Link layer
d) Session layer

Answer: d
Explanation: In OSI reference model, the fifth layer is Session layer. Session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. In TCP/IP protocol stack, the functions of the session layer are handled by the transport layer itself and thus the session layer is missing from the TCP/IP model.

48. Delimiting and synchronization of data exchange is provided by __

a) Application layer
b) Session layer
c) Transport layer
d) Link layer

Answer: b
Explanation: The session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. The session layer 5 is responsible for establishing managing synchronizing and terminating sessions. In TCP/IP protocol stack, the functions of the session layer are handled by the transport layer itself and thus the session layer is missing from the TCP/IP model.

46. The functionalities of the presentation layer include __

a) Data compression
b) Data encryption
c) Data description
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d
Explanation: Some functions of the presentation layer include character-code translation, data conversion, data encryption and decryption, and data translation. It connects the application layer with the layers below converting the human readable text and media to machine readable format and vice-versa.

45. Transport layer is implemented in __

a) End system
b) NIC
c) Ethernet
d) Signal transmission

Answer:a
Explanation: Application, Presentation, Session and Transport layer are implemented in the end system. The transport layer handles the process to process delivery of the packet through ports.

44. Application layer is implemented in __

a) End system
b) NIC
c) Ethernet
d) Packet transport

Answer: a
Explanation: Not only application layer, but presentation layer, session layer and transport layer are also implemented in the end system. The layers below are implemented outside the end system, for example, the network layer is implemented on the routers and the physical layer is implemented for the medium.

43. Which of the following layers is an addition to OSI model when compared with TCP IP model?

a) Application layer
b) Presentation layer
c) Session layer
d) Session and Presentation layer

Answer: d
Explanation: The only difference between OSI model and TCP/IP model is that the functions of Presentation and Session layer in the OSI model are handled by the transport layer itself in TCP/IP. OSI is a generalized model and TCP/IP is an application specific model.

42. The number of layers in ISO OSI reference model is __

a) 5
b) 7
c) 6
d) 10

Answer: b
Explanation: The seven layers in ISO OSI reference model is Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. OSI stands for Open System Interconnect and it is a generalized model.

41. How many layers are present in the Internet protocol stack (TCP/IP model)?

a) 5
b) 7
c) 6
d) 10

Answer: a
Explanation: There are five layers in the Internet Protocol stack. The five layers in Internet Protocol stack is Application, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. The internet protocol stack model is also called the TCP/IP model and it’s used in modern Internet Communication.

40. Which of the following networks extends a private network across public networks?

a) local area network
b) virtual private network
c) enterprise private network
d) storage area network

Answer: b
Explanation: A virtual private network extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.VPN provides enhanced security and online anonymity to users on the internet. It is also used to unblock websites which are unavailable in certain regions.

39. Network congestion occurs _

a) in case of traffic overloading
b) when a system terminates
c) when connection between two nodes terminates
d) in case of transfer failure

Answer: a
Explanation: Network congestion occurs when traffic in the network is more than the network could handle. To avoid network congestion, the network management uses various open-loop and closed-loop congestion control techniques.

39. A list of protocols used by a system, one protocol per layer, is called __

a) protocol architecture
b) protocol stack
c) protocol suite
d) protocol system

Answer: b
Explanation: A protocol stack refers to a group of protocols that are running concurrently that are employed for the implementation of network protocol suite. Each layer in the network model has to use one specific protocol from the protocol stack.

38. A __ is a device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet.

a) bridge
b) firewall
c) router
d) hub

Answer: c
Explanation: A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. They make use of routing protocols like RIP to find the cheapest path to the destination.

37. Bluetooth is an example of __

a) personal area network
b) local area network
c) virtual private network
d) wide area network

Answer: a
Explanation: Bluetooth is a wireless technology used to create a wireless personal area network for data transfer up to a distance of 10 meters. It operates on 2.45 GHz frequency band for transmission.

36. Communication channel is shared by all the machines on the network in __

a) broadcast network
b) unicast network
c) multicast network
d) anycast network

Answer: a
Explanation: In a broadcast network, information is sent to all stations in a network whereas in a multicast network the data or information is sent to a group of stations in the network. In unicast network, information is sent to only one specific station. The broadcast address of the network is the last assigned address of the network.

35. In computer network nodes are _

a) the computer that originates the data
b) the computer that routes the data
c) the computer that terminates the data
d) all of the mentioned

Answer: d
Explanation: In a computer network, a node can be anything that is capable of sending data or receiving data or even routing the data to its destination. Routers, Computers and Smartphones are some examples of network nodes.

34. Which of the following computer networks is built on the top of another network?

a) prior network
b) chief network
c) prime network
d) overlay network

Answer: d
Explanation: An overlay network is a computer network that is built on top of another network. Some examples of an overlay network are Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P).

33. Two devices are in network if __

a) a process in one device is able to exchange information with a process in another device
b) a process is running on both devices
c) PIDs of the processes running of different devices are same
d) a process is active and another is inactive

Answer: a
Explanation: A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes. The nodes have certain processes which enable them to share a specific type of data using a distinct protocol.

32. When collection of various computers seems a single coherent system to its client, then it is called _

a) computer network
b) distributed system
c) networking system
d) mail system

Answer: b
Explanation: A Computer network is defined as a collection of interconnected computers which uses a single technology for connection. A distributed system is also the same as computer network but the main difference is that the whole collection of computers appears to its users as a single coherent system. Example:- World wide web

31. Which of the following statements can be associated with OSI model?

a) A structured way to discuss and easier update system components
b) One layer may duplicate lower layer functionality
c) Functionality at one layer no way requires information from another layer
d) It is an application specific network model

Answer: c
Explanation: One layer may use the information from another layer, for example timestamp value. The information is contained in the header inserted by the previous layer. The headers are added as the packet moves from higher layers to the lower layers.

30. In the OSI model, as a data packet moves from the lower to the upper layers, headers are _

a) Added
b) Removed
c) Rearranged
d) Randomized

Answer: b
Explanation: In OSI reference model, when data packet moves from lower layers to higher layer, headers get removed. Whereas when the data packet moves from higher layer to lower layers, headers are added. These headers contain the essential control information for the protocols used on the specific layer.

29. In TCP IP Model, when data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is __

a) Application layer
b) Transport layer
c) Link layer
d) Session layer

Answer: a
Explanation: In TCP/IP model, the fifth layer is application layer. When data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is application layer. Application layer provides the interface between applications and the network. The user interacts with only this layer.

28. In OSI model, when data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is _

a) Application layer
b) Transport layer
c) Link layer
d) Session layer

Answer: d
Explanation: In OSI reference model, the fifth layer is Session layer. Session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. In TCP/IP protocol stack, the functions of the session layer are handled by the transport layer itself and thus the session layer is missing from the TCP/IP model.

27. Delimiting and synchronization of data exchange is provided by __

a) Application layer
b) Session layer
c) Transport layer
d) Link layer

Answer: b
Explanation: The session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. The session layer 5 is responsible for establishing managing synchronizing and terminating sessions. In TCP/IP protocol stack, the functions of the session layer are handled by the transport layer itself and thus the session layer is missing from the TCP/IP model.

26. The functionalities of the presentation layer include __

a) Data compression
b) Data encryption
c) Data description
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d
Explanation: Some functions of the presentation layer include character-code translation, data conversion, data encryption and decryption, and data translation. It connects the application layer with the layers below converting the human readable text and media to machine readable format and vice-versa.

25. Transport layer is implemented in __

a) End system
b) NIC
c) Ethernet
d) Signal transmission

Answer: a
Explanation: Application, Presentation, Session and Transport layer are implemented in the end system. The transport layer handles the process to process delivery of the packet through ports.

24. Application layer is implemented in __

a) End system
b) NIC
c) Ethernet
d) Packet transport

Answer: a
Explanation: Not only application layer, but presentation layer, session layer and transport layer are also implemented in the end system. The layers below are implemented outside the end system, for example, the network layer is implemented on the routers and the physical layer is implemented for the medium.

23. Which of the following layers is an addition to OSI model when compared with TCP IP model?

a) Application layer
b) Presentation layer
c) Session layer
d) Session and Presentation layer

Answer: d
Explanation: The only difference between OSI model and TCP/IP model is that the functions of Presentation and Session layer in the OSI model are handled by the transport layer itself in TCP/IP. OSI is a generalized model and TCP/IP is an application specific model.

22. The number of layers in ISO OSI reference model is __

a) 5
b) 7
c) 6
d) 10

Answer: b
Explanation: The seven layers in ISO OSI reference model is Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. OSI stands for Open System Interconnect and it is a generalized model.

21. How many layers are present in the Internet protocol stack (TCP/IP model)?

a) 5
b) 7
c) 6
d) 10

Answer: a
Explanation: There are five layers in the Internet Protocol stack. The five layers in Internet Protocol stack is Application, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. The internet protocol stack model is also called the TCP/IP model and it’s used in modern Internet Communication.

20. Which of the following networks extends a private network across public networks?

a) local area network
b) virtual private network
c) enterprise private network
d) storage area network

Answer: b
Explanation: A virtual private network extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.VPN provides enhanced security and online anonymity to users on the internet. It is also used to unblock websites which are unavailable in certain regions.

19. In TCP IP Model, when data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is __

a) Application layer
b) Transport layer
c) Link layer
d) Session layer

Answer: a
Explanation: Network congestion occurs when traffic in the network is more than the network could handle. To avoid network congestion, the network management uses various open-loop and closed-loop congestion control techniques.

18. In OSI model, when data is sent from device A to device B, the 5th layer to receive data at B is _

a) Application layer
b) Transport layer
c) Link layer
d) Session layer

Answer: d
Explanation: In OSI reference model, the fifth layer is Session layer. Session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. In TCP/IP protocol stack, the functions of the session layer are handled by the transport layer itself and thus the session layer is missing from the TCP/IP model.

17. Delimiting and synchronization of data exchange is provided by __

a) Application layer
b) Session layer
c) Transport layer
d) Link layer

Answer: b
Explanation: The session layer provides the mechanism for opening, closing and managing a session between end-user application processes. The session layer 5 is responsible for establishing managing synchronizing and terminating sessions. In TCP/IP protocol stack, the functions of the session layer are handled by the transport layer itself and thus the session layer is missing from the TCP/IP model.

16. The functionalities of the presentation layer include __

a) Data compression
b) Data encryption
c) Data description
d) All of the mentioned

Answer: d
Explanation: Some functions of the presentation layer include character-code translation, data conversion, data encryption and decryption, and data translation. It connects the application layer with the layers below converting the human readable text and media to machine readable format and vice-versa.

15. Transport layer is implemented in __

a) End system
b) NIC
c) Ethernet
d) Signal transmission

Answer: a
Explanation: Application, Presentation, Session and Transport layer are implemented in the end system. The transport layer handles the process to process delivery of the packet through ports.

14. Application layer is implemented in __

a) End system
b) NIC
c) Ethernet
d) Packet transport

Answer: a
Explanation: Not only application layer, but presentation layer, session layer and transport layer are also implemented in the end system. The layers below are implemented outside the end system, for example, the network layer is implemented on the routers and the physical layer is implemented for the medium.

13. Which of the following layers is an addition to OSI model when compared with TCP IP model?

a) Application layer
b) Presentation layer
c) Session layer
d) Session and Presentation layer

Answer: d
Explanation: The only difference between OSI model and TCP/IP model is that the functions of Presentation and Session layer in the OSI model are handled by the transport layer itself in TCP/IP. OSI is a generalized model and TCP/IP is an application specific model.

12. The number of layers in ISO OSI reference model is __

a) 5
b) 7
c) 6
d) 10

Answer: b
Explanation: The seven layers in ISO OSI reference model is Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. OSI stands for Open System Interconnect and it is a generalized model.

11. How many layers are present in the Internet protocol stack (TCP/IP model)?

a) 5
b) 7
c) 6
d) 10

Answer: a
Explanation: There are five layers in the Internet Protocol stack. The five layers in Internet Protocol stack is Application, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical layer. The internet protocol stack model is also called the TCP/IP model and it’s used in modern Internet Communication.

10. Which of the following networks extends a private network across public networks?

a) local area network
b) virtual private network
c) enterprise private network
d) storage area network

Answer: b
Explanation: A virtual private network extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.VPN provides enhanced security and online anonymity to users on the internet. It is also used to unblock websites which are unavailable in certain regions.

9. Network congestion occurs _

a) in case of traffic overloading
b) when a system terminates
c) when connection between two nodes terminates
d) in case of transfer failure

Answer: a
Explanation: Network congestion occurs when traffic in the network is more than the network could handle. To avoid network congestion, the network management uses various open-loop and closed-loop congestion control techniques.

8. A list of protocols used by a system, one protocol per layer, is called __

a) protocol architecture
b) protocol stack
c) protocol suite
d) protocol system

Answer: b
Explanation: A protocol stack refers to a group of protocols that are running concurrently that are employed for the implementation of network protocol suite. Each layer in the network model has to use one specific protocol from the protocol stack.

7. A __ is a device that forwards packets between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet.

a) bridge
b) firewall
c) router
d) hub

Answer: c
Explanation: A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. They make use of routing protocols like RIP to find the cheapest path to the destination.

6. Bluetooth is an example of __

a) personal area network
b) local area network
c) virtual private network
d) wide area network

Answer: a
Explanation: Bluetooth is a wireless technology used to create a wireless personal area network for data transfer up to a distance of 10 meters. It operates on 2.45 GHz frequency band for transmission.

5. Communication channel is shared by all the machines on the network in __

a) broadcast network
b) unicast network
c) multicast network
d) anycast network

Answer: a
Explanation: In a broadcast network, information is sent to all stations in a network whereas in a multicast network the data or information is sent to a group of stations in the network. In unicast network, information is sent to only one specific station. The broadcast address of the network is the last assigned address of the network.

4. In computer network nodes are _

a) the computer that originates the data
b) the computer that routes the data
c) the computer that terminates the data
d) all of the mentioned

Answer: d
Explanation: In a computer network, a node can be anything that is capable of sending data or receiving data or even routing the data to its destination. Routers, Computers and Smartphones are some examples of network nodes.

3. Which of the following computer networks is built on the top of another network?

a) prior network
b) chief network
c) prime network
d) overlay network

Answer: d
Explanation: An overlay network is a computer network that is built on top of another network. Some examples of an overlay network are Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P).

2. Two devices are in network if __

a) a process in one device is able to exchange information with a process in another device
b) a process is running on both devices
c) PIDs of the processes running of different devices are same
d) a process is active and another is inactive

Answer: a
Explanation: A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections between nodes. The nodes have certain processes which enable them to share a specific type of data using a distinct protocol.

1. When collection of various computers seems a single coherent system to its client, then it is called _

a) computer network
b) distributed system
c) networking system
d) mail system

Answer: b
Explanation: A Computer network is defined as a collection of interconnected computers which uses a single technology for connection. A distributed system is also the same as computer network but the main difference is that the whole collection of computers appears to its users as a single coherent system. Example:- World wide web